tudy, teaching and research in the history of education

2000 Volume 29 Number 2

Allyson Holbrook
Re-visiting the Connections between School, Work and Learning in the Workplace.
The occasion of the ANZHES presidential address provides the outgoing president with an opportunity to review their body of research and to reflect on how it might contribute to an understanding of emerging trends or current debates. The conference theme for 1999 is The End of a Century: New Work in the History of Education. Much of the `new work' stems from asking critically informed questions about issues that have persisted for decades, if not for centuries. This address approaches the theme by re-visiting and raising questions about one such issue, the school's role in preparing the pupil for work

Carolina Kaufmann
Education and Dictatorship in Argentina, 1976-1983 Translated and edited by Robert Austin.
This article examines some results of a major research project being conducted at the National University of Entre Rios, Argentina. It outlines some characteristics of the last Argentine dictatorship (1976-1983) and its consequences in Argentine education. It addresses the conceptualisations of the militarisation of the education system and the authoritarian perennialism which characterised the field of education under the dictatorship. Both conceptions contributed to the consolidation of an educative style capable of imposing and ideological and pedagogical homogeneity rooted in a conservative tradition, which would facilitate the concealment, even the denial of social conflicts.

Alison Jones and Kuni Jenkins
Disciplining the Native Body: Handwriting and its Civilising Practices
The `civilisation' project carried out by the British in Aotearoa/New Zealand in the early nineteenth century involved remaking the bodies of the indigenous people. Among the wide-ranging activities of this corporeal re-production were a series of practices which surrounded the learning of a new and desired skill: writing. This paper is a discussion of some of the practices within which the learning of handwriting were embedded, and their profound significance in altering the `native' body and mind to form the new `civilised native' in Aotearoa/New Zealand. `Civilisation' of the indigenous Maori people of Aotearoa/New Zealand, as elsewhere, required the indigenous body in complex ways. For its own definition, civilisation required its `other' - represented by the `natural' native body (uninfluenced by British cultural norms). This requirement worked in at least two ways. On the one hand, the untouched `native' provided the British with a measure of what they were not: uncivilised and barbaric. British civilisation could rest on its difference from the uncivilised other. On the other hand, evidence of the progress of the civilising process could be read on the native body. Civilisation as `cultural change' (and the tool of colonisation) could be measured in corporeal terms - that is, by changes in the appearance and behaviour of the becoming-civilised person.

Tony Austin
Genocide and Schooling in Capricornia: Educating the Stolen Generation.
Aboriginal children of mixed ancestry in the Northern Territory were until very recently removed in large numbers from their Aboriginal families, institutionalised, and suffered a determined effort by government authorities to divest them of their Aboriginal identity. In the efforts of the Stolen Generation to extract adequate recognition of their suffering - including an apology - from the Commonwealth Government, some have charged that government treatment of Aboriginal people amounted to genocide. Commonwealth policy in the Northern Territory during the 1930s did aim to eliminate the visible presence of the so-called `half-caste' population through a process of biological assimilation. Improved schooling was seen as a calculated way of elevating half-caste girls to a level that would help encourage white men to marry them, and so begin the process of `breeding out the colour'. A prima facie case can be made to show that education was part of the process of genocide in Australia's North.

Grant Rodwell
Domestic Science, Race Motherhood and Eugenics in Australian State Schools, 1900-1960.
Eugenic discourse had a special place for women. Soloway has written that `perhaps nothing betrayed the Victorian bourgeois origins of the eugenic movement more than the idealization of the genetically precocious large family reared under the watchful guidance of the devoted "race mother". Some eugenicists such as Saleeby devoted whole books to the topic. He declared that: Woman is Nature's supreme instrument of the future. The eugenist is therefore deeply concerned with her education, her psychology, the conditions which permit her to exercise her great natural function of choosing the fathers of the future, the age at which she should marry, and the compatibility between the discharge of her incomparable function of motherhood and the lesser functions which some women now assume.

Robert Austin
The Global Good Neighbour: U.S. Intervention in National Cultures and Education since the 1960's
We will not renounce our part in the mission of our race, trustees under God, of the civilization of the world. God has not been preparing the English speaking and Teutonic peoples for a thousand years for nothing but vain (and) idle contemplation and self admiration. No! He has made us the master organizers of the world to establish system where chaos reigns. He has made us adept in government that we may administer government among savages and senile people.- US Senator Albert Beveridge (c.1890)

In the twilight years of the nineteenth century, the United States consummated its first sustained foreign military interventions by annexing Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. In each case, the `Americanisation' of autochthonous culture played, or would subsequently play a central role in pacifying national opposition to the appropriation of massive profits by US companies. So, for instance, a Harvard University Summer School for Cuban teachers was in place by 1900, contesting the sovereign pedagogical philosophy of assassinated Cuban independence leader Jose Mart'. Indeed the parallel phenomena of economic and cultural intervention were well established by the time the United States emerged as the hegemonic world power in the wake of World War II, manifest in its dominance of the terms under which global cultural bodies like UNESCO and the UNDP - indeed the United Nations itself-were constituted.4 While classical studies of US imperialism have necessarily emphasised economic exploitation, the accompanying cultural and educational interventions - rehearsed via F. D. Roosevelt's `Good Neighbor' policy in Central America once US marines had suppressed the Nicaraguan revolution of the 1930s - have been overshadowed, leading to an incomplete if not inaccurate picture.