tudy, teaching and research in the history of education

2001 Volume 30 Number 2

Kay Morris Matthews
'Simply Madness'?: Historical perspectives on teachers and university study
This paper compares and contrasts issues associated with being a teacher at the same time as being a university student in New Zealand at the turn of the twentieth century with those confronting others embarking on a similar endeavour one hundred years later. The paper draws upon the preliminary findings of two current research projects focused on those who study at university as adult students. The first part of the paper draws from a database of over 500 women graduate teachers in the period 1877-1920, to examine the educational and career profiles of those predominantly rural and working class adults who accessed university study extramurally or attended evening classes after completing a day’s paid work. The second part of the paper draws from a multi-disciplinary study of 1600 adult university students, aged forty years and over, who were enrolled in New Zealand universities in 1999. It focuses on the 86 teachers, mainly women, in the study, outlining their educational and career profiles, and draws on their reflections on their study experience. It highlights the personal, financial, work-related and institutional pressures of juggling study with teaching, family and community commitments. It also shows that, despite these difficulties, these students anticipated that their newly completed qualification would enhance their career paths. The paper shows a common thread in the experience of combining study and paid work as teachers across these two generations: gaining a degree was achieved at considerable personal cost.

Tanya Fitzgerald
Fences, Boundaries and Imagined Communities: Re-thinking the construction of early mission schools and communities in New Zealand, 1823-1830
On 2 August 1823, the second wave of Church Missionary Society missionaries arrived in Paihia in northern New Zealand. One of the first tasks the missionaries faced was to physically build a mission station and construct a mission community. This article will examine ways in which CMS missionaries achieved these tasks and how in particular a dichotomised environment was created; missionary (English) and Maori; civilised and savage and Christian and heathen. A close reading of the sketches produced to represent the missionary world to family and friends back ‘home’ reveal the presence of an elaborate system of fences that proliferated on the landscape. This article will argue that these fences simultaneously created a community that was safe from supposed harm and established an imagined community that bounded its occupants in specific ways according to race and gender. The fences of the mission stations that dominated the landscape of northern New Zealand were a representation of ways in which an imperialist discourse was used to both explain and justify the need for missionary presence and missionary intervention. In effect, the fences created two oppositional worlds: the Pakeha Christian world and the indigenous world.

Gavin Kendall
Normality and Meaningfulness: Detailing the child in Eighteenth Century England
This essay concerns how the child was disciplined through two new practices concerned with reading that emerged in the course of the eighteenth century.  The first new practice, which was lexicographical in origin, explicitly differentiated between readers; this new practice allowed for the possibility of a conception of the ‘normal’ or typical reader.  The second new practice, which was pedagogical in origin, stressed the search for a ‘deep’, meaningful reading; this new practice allowed for the possibility of a psychologically sophisticated reader.  In discussing these new practices, this essay ranges across a terrain that is philosophical, pedagogical and ethical.  This issue is philosophical because new practices such as these were developed in high-level debates about the nature of language; it is pedagogical because the new practices were invented for reading instruction; and it is ethical because the new practices impacted on the subjective existence of the child.  This essay concludes by arguing for a correlation between the psychological orderliness which emerged from these transformations and a more generally distributed social orderliness.

Jan Kociumbas
Lost in the Bush: Searching for the Australian Child
The lost child has been both reality and myth in Australia. This paper is concerned less with actual incidence of lost children than with the representation of the Australian child in journalism, art, fiction, journalism and film. Preceding the celebration of mateship and sacrifice in the Anzac legend, the image of colonial children as suffering infants, lost in a persecuting landscape, was a vehicle for the expression of ambivalent ideas pertaining not only to childhood but also to gender, class, Aboriginal people and land. Adding to this complexity, the melancholy, romantic construction of children as sacrificial victims did not go unchallenged especially from the 1890s when nationalists attempted to replace it with a different and allegedly more realistic model. This new ideal privileged a robust and capable youngster, quick-witted, mischievous, lively and enterprising, said to be the product of distinctively Australian conditions. Nevertheless, the nationalists’ image was no less romanticised and fluid than the one it opposed, remaining likely to celebrate traces of innocence, vulnerability and saintliness in the young. It was, moreover, destined never to replace the angelic, expiring waif. Rather the two images ran in counterpoint across the twentieth century and though in many ways antithetical, were also complementary, in that both were measured against that over-riding presence, the Australian bush, the outback, the ‘back of beyond’ – that legendary frontier or edge of white settlement and those mysterious, uncivilised spaces further out, as defined by R. Ward in The Australian Legend (OUP, Melbourne, 1965[1958]), or, by extension any non-urbanised space, ranging from tropical jungle to desert.

Bronwyn Ellis
Changing Emphases in Australian Indigenous Higher Education
The current movement for reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians cannot ignore the role of education.  Just as educational initiatives and policies have been instrumental in creating some of the inequities of the past, so education has a vital role to play in bringing about a fairer, more harmonious society. Knowing what has gone before is an important part of seeking a full understanding of the present. Traditional education in Australian Indigenous societies prior to European invasions included various levels of learning, some of which can be considered as higher education.  However, it is higher education as understood by the colonising culture that is the focus of this paper, which traces the changes in policies along with changing philosophies as official aims have moved from 'civilising' (or disintegrating) to assimilating and then to integrating and allowing for self-management. The move has been from education imposed on Indigenous Australians to education with consultation in varying degrees.  Increasingly this has meant education delivered by Indigenous as well as non-Indigenous educators. There has been a growing realisation in non-Indigenous communities that they also need to learn from Indigenous cultures – in order both to gain in understanding and also to benefit from what Indigenous knowledges are able to share with them. Knowledge of the ill-advised practices and policies of the past, together with an appreciation of the values and learning enshrined in other cultures, can help guard against a repetition of past errors and is necessary for the growth of understanding and respect among all peoples of this nation.

Philip Raymont
An Australian Hybrid: Australia's Universities and their Colleges
Affiliated colleges have been part of the Australian university landscape as long as there have been universities in Australia. This paper draws on a recent study of the foundation of St John’s College at The University of Queensland and reviews a wide range of secondary sources, including the histories of Australia’s universities and institutional histories of many colleges, to analyse the foundation of and the nature of the relationship of Australia’s first six state universities and their affiliated colleges. The analysis shows that by the end of the early twentieth century, there had developed no clear, dedicated and specific model for the foundation of colleges, or their relationship with their university. Their status as providers of moral instruction, tutorial assistance and domestic supervision came from The University of Sydney experience. The statutes of affiliation for most other colleges followed The University of Melbourne example. Instead of separate legislation being enacted for the colleges, as at The University of Sydney, the respective universities were permitted under their own statutes to grant affiliation of or connection with other educational institutions or colleges. All other circumstances of the relationship of universities and their colleges reflected distinct colonial circumstances; issues of Church and State, financial assistance, land and the need for accommodation.