tudy, teaching and research in the history of education


Volume 36 Issue01The spinster teacher in Australia from the 1870s to the 1960s
Kay Whitehead
Flinders University

The image of the spinster has long been aligned with that of women teachers in western countries. This article describes how teaching became normalised as single women or spinsters' work with the advent of mass compulsory schooling and identifies significant shifts in perceptions of women teachers. It locates them as 'new women' in the early twentieth century, and then shows how the sciences of psychology and sexology stigmatised single women from the 1920s, and undermined their positions as teachers in the postwar era. In essence, the article provides an overview of issues surrounding the 'woman teacher' in Australia from the late nineteenth century through to the 1960s.

Mechanical contrivances and fancy needlework: The Brisbane Exhibition and education in colonial Queensland
Joanne Scott
University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland

First held in 1876, the Brisbane Exhibition illuminates aspects of Queensland’s education system and provides an opportunity to reflect on the role of an institution that stood outside of but interacted with that system. This article examines the schoolwork displays at the annual show from 1876 to 1900, the Juvenile Industrial Exhibition of 1883, and the attempts by the event’s organising body, the National Agricultural and Industrial Association of Queensland, to influence curriculum development in the colony.

‘Solving an empire problem’: the Salvation Army and British juvenile migration to Australia
Esther Daniel
Deakin University, Victoria

The Salvation Army’s British juvenile migration program to Australia was a combination of complex themes that included British imperialism and the preservation of white British Australia. Hence it was referred to as ‘emigration and colonisation’. It also encompassed social, economic and religious themes that were predominantly enunciated by William Booth. The Salvation Army claimed that its programme would be of national benefit in providing Australia with the ‘right kind’ of migrants: young, healthy white British juveniles, with sound economic potential.

Tracing the origin of Rudolph Steiner’s pedagogy of imagination
Thomas Neilsen, Julia Smith
University of Canberra

During the first half of the nineteenth century Aboriginal schools were established in a number of Australian colonies as a part of a project to ‘civilise’ Aboriginal people. Using the case study of schools established in Adelaide, South Australia, in the 1840s, this article examines differences in the way the notion of ‘civilisation’ was understood by colonial educators and civilisers, and how these differences impacted on the form of schooling provided. In particular, the article compares the views of German Lutheran missionaries who established the first Aboriginal school in Adelaide in 1839, and those of Governor George Grey, who instituted changes in the approach taken in Aboriginal education which reflected his own views about ‘civilisation’ and the ‘civilising’ process

Student activists at Sydney university 1960-1967: a problem of interpretation
Alan Barcan
University of Newcastle, NSW

The historiography of Australian university student life in the third quarter of the twentieth century was described by Donald Beer in 1996 as rudimentary. Many writers blurred the early 1960s and the post-1967 years, seeing the same set of motivations pervading the whole decade. Others saw the years 1960 to 1967 as a unity and often as a period of transition.

The present analysis concentrates on Sydney. After considering a variety of interpretations, it examines student life in the early 1960s as expressed in various clubs and societies, as well as outlining the liberal humanist curriculum, with particular reference to English. The rise of new clubs and new forms of activism is discussed and a shift in ideologies about 1965 is confirmed. The flow of political and intellectual controversy is examined in the weekly student paper, Honi Soit. The decay of liberal humanism is discerned in the deterioration of the annual university magazine, Hermes, and the Arts Faculty annual, Arna. But the deterioration of the weekly Union Recorder and the annual Students’ Handbook presaged a transformation of both vehicles of information and opinion. The article closes with a summing up of the issues traversed in the preceding pages.